December 7, 2022


The study of comparative anatomy is part of biology. It is founded upon the principle that the diet of any animal, in its natural state, is always found to agree both with its anatomical structure and with its digestive processes and general bodily functions. This observation is so clear that biology has divided animals into four great classes, herbivorous, frugivourous, carnivorous, and omnivorous. There are various sub- and minor divisions that are made such as gramnivora – grain eaters; the rodentia – gnawers, the ruminants – cud chewers and the edentata – creatures without teeth.
In order to classify an animal and place it into its proper division, biologists make a careful examination of the physical structure of the animal, examining the organs and anatomy – teeth, extremities(hands, hoofs, claws), the alimentary canal, the stomach, the liver, the placenta, etc.
This body of knowledge is referred to as the science of comparative anatomy. Science is defined as: “The observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of phenomena.” or “A systematic method or body of knowledge in a given area.” Comparative anatomy is a body of knowledge based on observation of natural phenomena.
Comparative anatomy places man in the category of frugivorous animal – fruit eater. This body of science gives us the structure of the human body and how it relates to its natural foods.
“After structure – function!”
Often going hand in hand with comparative anatomy is the scientific body of knowledge called physiology – while anatomy deals with the structure, physiology deals with function. The functions of the various organs of the body – the chemical composition of the organic tissues, secretions, etc.
Comparative anatomy clearly places the natural diet of man as fruits, greens, nuts & seeds, but we can further reinforce that evidence through the study of physiology. The saliva of man vs carnivore, the gastric juices, the excretions, the habits of animals – i.e. carnivores sleep in the daytime, and prowl in search of prey at night, the manner of eating and drinking – carnivorous animals lap their liquids, the anatomical structure of the skin – all vegetarian animals perspire through their skin, while all meat eating species do not have the ability to perspire due to needing to retain fluids to keep uric acid dissolved in solution. When humans consume flesh our uric acid levels rapidly rise leading to conditions like gout.
We can then continue to confirm findings through chemistry – the nutrient value of foods and their effects, hygiene, and then through lived experience.
Through rigorous observation in multiple disciplines of science the natural dietetic character of man has been confirmed. The scientific method is not how this information is determined as the scientific method is how we conduct experiments to determine causation. Scientific method is used in determining causal relationships by helping us to design scientific experiments with distinct dependent and independent variables. Observation of natural phenomena is the foundation of bodies of knowledge. Comparative anatomy is an organized system of information which has been discerned through direct observation.